Today, leave is a fundamental aspect of employment practices in most countries. It encompasses various types of leave, including privileged leave, sick leave, casual leave, vacation leave, maternity and paternity leave. The specific provisions for leave are often governed by labor laws, collective bargaining agreements, and company policies.

Every business organization provides leave in addition to weekly and national holidays according to the Shops & Establishment Act applicable to the state, which makes a provision for leave and conditions under which it can be availed.

Type of Leaves

Earned / Privileged Leave

The privilege leave is also called earned leave which is earned by an employee based on no of days worked. The entitlement of earned leave varies according to the concerned State's Shop & Establishment Act. The employee can avail of or carry forward or encash earned leave upon fulfilling the conditions laid down in the respective state's Shop & Establishment Act. Normally, privilege leave is applied in advance and is normally used for pre-planned purposes like rest, marriage, childbirth, medical, travel, family, etc.

Casual Leave

The casual leave is a leave that is granted to an employee to meet any unforeseen exigencies. The employees can take casual leave for a day or two but, in exceptional circumstances, can only be granted for a longer duration by obtaining prior approval. The entitlement of a number of casual leaves in a year depends on the respective states' Shop & Establishment Act. Generally, Casual leaves are not cashable nor can be carried forward. Normally, casual leaves can't be clubbed with any other leave. However, it is solely dependent on the respective states' Shop & Establishment Act. The casual leave expires automatically at the end of the year if the employee does not utilize it during the year.

Sick Leave

The sick leave is leave given to an employee for his own sickness or sickness of his family member. The sick leave is generally not carried forward; however, some of the state's Shop & Establishment Act permits the carried forward of sick leave to the next year. Sick leave is not cashable and can only be utilized for sicknesses. The employees get salaries for the period for which they take sick leave

Working Hours

Opening & Closing Hours

The State Govts fix the opening and closing hours of all classes of establishments and fix different opening and closing hours for different classes of establishments and for different areas

Daily & Weekly Hours

The State Government, under the Shop & Establishment Act, fixes the maximum no of working hours on any day or in any week in which an employee is required to work; however, it does not impose any restriction upon the employer to fix a lesser number of working hours. Usually, Normal working hours in a day or in a week do not exceed 9 and 48 hours, respectively, and if it exceeds, the employer is liable to pay overtime at a rate double the daily wage rate.

Spread Over Hours

The periods of work of an employee in an establishment should be so fixed that includes intervals for his rest and it shall not spread over more than twelve hours in any day

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